杰克·伦敦（1876—1916）是美国作家，生于旧金山一个破产农民的家庭。因家境贫困，自幼从事体力劳动，当过童工，装卸工和水手等，后又在美国各地流浪。靠劳动所得曾进过加利福尼亚大学学习。在1897年加入过阿拉斯加等地淘金者的行列。早年坎坷的生活经历使他体会到下层人民的悲惨处境和人与人之间的激烈竞争，成为他后来从事创作的源泉。 伦敦一共写过十九部长篇小说，一百五十多篇短篇小说和故事，三部剧本，以及论文、特写等。主要作品有：小说集《狼的儿子》（1900）、中篇小说《荒野的呼唤》（1903）、长篇小说《海狼》（1904）、《铁蹄》（1908）和《马丁·伊登》（1909）、特写集《深渊中的人们》（1903）等。 伦敦的创作思想较为复杂，受到过马克思、斯宾塞、尼采等多人影响。作为现实主义作家，他在创作中带有明显的自然主义色彩，作品歌颂对生命的热爱和对大自然的斗争，同时反映了弱肉强食、生存竞争的哲学观点。伦敦善于通过行动刻画人物性格和揭示主题。小说结构紧凑，文字精炼，生动感人。 《马丁·伊登》是杰克·伦敦的代表作，带有自传性质。主人公马丁·伊登原是一个年轻的普通水手。一次偶然的机会，他结识了银行家莫斯的女儿罗丝。他崇拜罗丝的纯洁高雅，而罗丝也被他的粗野不羁所吸引。在爱情的鼓舞下，马丁刻苦读书，发奋写作。但他们的感情遭到了莫斯夫妇的反对，罗丝同马丁断绝了来往。后来马丁以极大的毅力获得了成功，成为名作家。原先对他不屑一顾的人都对他另眼相看。罗丝也想重修旧好，被马丁愤然拒绝。然而马丁跻身于上流社会后，却看透了资产者的自私和虚伪，在幻灭的痛苦中投海自杀。 《马丁·伊登》是杰克·伦敦最有影响的作品，一则因为它具有明显的自传色彩，提供了认识、研究伦敦宝贵材料，二则由于它在思想上和艺术上有很高的价值，标志着美国现实主义文学在本世纪初的重要发展。 ★《马丁·伊登》的思想内容相当丰富。首先，它真实生动地描写了一个出身微贱的作家的艰难的奋斗道路，表现了在资本主义制度下一个正直作家的坎坷命运。其次，小说对资产阶级的体面人物作了细致的解剖和无情的嘲讽。小说告诉人们，真正的野蛮人并不是马丁和他所属的阶级，而恰恰是那些自诩为文明人的罗丝小姐和她的父母莫斯夫妇等。此外，小说对个人主义也作了一定的批判。马丁为了赢得罗丝的爱情，竟可以不顾一切。他离开自己的阶级和朋友，到头来却发现是南柯一梦。他后来的悔恨、落寞、空虚、孤独和自杀，实际上是对个人主义的怀疑和否定。不过，需要指出的是，作者在对个人主义进行鞭挞时，流露出对斯宾塞的社会进化论和尼采的超人哲学的矛盾态度。 小说细致的心理描写和善于通过人物的行动去揭示人物的性格这两点，也为人们所称道。 杰克·伦敦简介: 伦敦，J．（1876～1916）美国小说家，生于加利福尼亚旧金山一个破产农民家庭。他从幼年起就不得不出卖体力养活自己。他当过牧童、报童、童工、工人、水手。他还参加过1893年大恐慌中失业大军组成的抗议队伍，以流浪罪被捕入狱，罚做苦工几个月。出狱后，他一边拼命干活，一边刻苦学习，广泛涉猎达尔文、斯宾塞、尼采和马克思等人的著作。他曾考进加利福尼亚大学，一年后辍学。后来受了阿拉斯加淘金热的影响，加入了淘金者的行列，却因病空手而归，但带回了北方故事的丰富素材。从此，他埋头写作，成为“出卖脑力劳动”的职业作家。 杰克·伦敦从1900年起连续发表了许多短篇小说，通称为“北方故事”，是他的成名之作。描写英国伦敦贫民窟和工人的悲惨生活《深渊中的人们》（1903）、自传体小说《马丁·伊登》（1909）、政治幻想小说《铁蹄》（1908）等许多中长篇小说和散文集，深刻地揭露资本主义社会的弊端和罪恶，有力地控诉资产阶级对劳动人民的剥削，公开号召用阶级斗争和武装革命推翻资本主义制度。 杰克·伦敦在不长的十几年创作生涯中共写了19部长篇小说，150多篇中短篇小说和大量文学报告集、散文集和论文。其中比较优秀的还有《荒野的呼唤》（i903）、《白牙》（1906）、《天大亮》（1910）、《月谷》（1913）、《黑西哥人》（1913），和受到列宁赞赏的《热爱生命》（1906）。但是到了晚期，他逐渐脱离社会斗争，为了迎合出版商的需要和满足个人的物质享受也写了不少粗制滥造的作品。1916年杰克·伦敦和他的代表作中的主人公马丁·伊登一样，在精神极度空虚和悲观失望中自杀身亡。 ▲·内容提要· 《马丁·伊登》是杰克·伦敦的不朽作品。小说的前半部带有自传性质，取材于作者早年的生活经历和后来成名的过程。 年轻水手马丁·伊登在一次偶然的机会中救了大律师摩斯的儿子亚瑟。为了感谢马丁的救命之恩，亚瑟热情邀他到家里作客。摩斯家富丽堂皇的摆设，优雅文明的风度使马丁眼花缭乱，惊慕不己。更使他心醉神移的是亚瑟年轻、美貌的妹妹罗丝。在马丁的眼中，罗丝是那么高尚纯洁。对俗不可耐的公子哥儿腻烦了的罗丝也喜欢这个精力充沛、才智过人的无产者。在罗丝的鼓励下，更确切地说，在憧憬“高尚而又纯真的爱情”的巨大动力下，马丁以超人的毅力发愤读书，他只用几个月的时间就学完了常人需要两年才能学完的中学课程。他常常每天只睡四五个小时，像作者杰克·伦敦开始写作时一样，一边做苦工，一边学习、写作，为的是能有朝一日跻身“上流社会”，成为可与罗丝匹配的“上等人”。尽管他不断写作，稿子一篇篇寄出，却一次次遭到拒绝。后来，虽然罗丝私下与马丁订了婚，但是，她的父母认为马丁是个缺乏教养、粗鲁无礼的穷光蛋，因而竭力反对女儿与马丁的进一步接近；摩斯家客厅里的阔老阔少也嘲笑、冷落马丁。马丁逐渐发现“上流社会”并非他过去想象的那么高尚，那么文明。在一次客厅辩论中，他直言不讳地批评了这些“高等人士”，冒犯了他们的尊严，从此被拒于摩斯家的门外。继而罗丝也同他断绝了来往。这时，马丁痛苦地发现罗丝根本不是他想象中的“安琪儿”，而是一个目光短浅、庸俗的资产阶级小姐。支撑他努力奋斗的精神支柱崩溃了，他无力再继续写作，只是将原先退还的稿件再寄给出版商和报刊杂志。没想到，他的一篇作品被刊登了。一夜之间他成了名闻遐迩的大作家。请帖和稿约纷至沓来，金钱和荣誉接踵而至。昔日那些对他嗤之以鼻、攻击嘲讽的“高贵人士”如今向他献媚，“上流社会”向他敞开了欢迎的大门。摩斯家听说他功成名就，急忙叫罗丝主动上门，哭哭啼啼地要求重归于好，恢复婚约。然而，这时已爬上社会“顶峰”的马丁却看透了这些虚伪透顶、趋炎附势的芸芸众生；名誉和金钱，虚假的友谊和庸俗的爱情再也激不起他昔日那种对靠个人奋斗带来个人幸福的憧憬，再也无法改变他对人生的冷漠态度。他痛恨这些浑身散发出铜臭的资产阶级市侩，但也无法回到他原来出身的阶级。他想到一个孤岛上去过与世隔绝的隐士生活，但最终还是投海自杀，结束了他年轻的生命。 Jack London (1876-1916), prolific American novelist and short story writer, whose works deal romantically with the overwhelming power of nature and the struggle for survival. His left-wing philosophy is seen in the class struggle novel The Iron Heel (1908). Jack London was born on January 12, 1876, in San Francisco. He was deserted by his father, William Henry Chaney, and raised in Oakland by his mother Flora Wellman, a music teacher and spiritualist, and stepfather John London, whose surname he took. London's youth was marked by poverty. At the age of ten he became an avid reader, and borrowed books from the Oakland Public Library. After leaving school at the age of 14, London worked as a seaman, rode in freight trains as a hobo and adopted socialistic views as a member of protest armies of the unemployed. In 1894 he was arrested in Niagara Falls and jailed for vagrancy. Without having much formal education, London educated himself in public libraries, and at the age of 19 gained admittance to the University of California at Berkeley. He had already started to write. For the remainder of 1898 London again tried to earn his living by writing. His early stories appeared in the Overland Monthly and the Atlantic Monthly. In 1900 he married Elisabeth Maddern, but left her and their two daughters three years afterwards, eventually to marry Charmian Kittredge. In 1901 London ran unsuccessfully on the Socialist party ticket for mayor of Oakland. He started to steadily produce novels, nonfiction and short stories, becoming in his lifetime one of the most popular authors. London's first novel, The Son Of The Wolf, appeared in 1900. His Alaska stories, The Call Of The Wild (1903), in which a giant pet dog Buck finds his survival instincts in Yukon, White Fang (1906) and Burning Daylight (1910) gained a large reading public. Among his other works are The Sea-Wolf (1904) and The Road, a collection of short stories. In 1902 London went to England, where he studied the living conditions in East End and working class areas of the capital city. His report about the economic degradation of the poor, The People Of The Abyss (1903), was a surprise success in the U.S. but criticized in England. In 1906, he published his first collection of non-fiction pieces, The War Of The Classes, which included his lectures on socialism. London also published a semi-autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909) and a travel book The Cruise of the Snark (1911). London had purchased in 1910 a large tract of land near Glen Ellen in Sonoma County, and devoted his energy and money improving and enlarging his Beauty Ranch. In 1913 London's Beauty Ranch burned to the ground, and his doctor told him that his kidneys were failing. A few months before his death, London resigned from the Socialist Party. Debts, alcoholism, illness, and fear of losing his creativity darkened the author's last years. He died on November 22, 1916, officially of gastro-intestinal uremia. However, there have also been speculations that London committed suicide with morphine. Jack London (John Griffith) (1876-1916) Jack London, whose life symbolized the power of will, was the most successful writer in America in the early 20th Century. His vigorous stories of men and animals against the environment, and survival against hardships were drawn mainly from his own experience. An illegitimate child, London passed his childhood in poverty in the Oakland slums. At the age of 17, he ventured to sea on a sealing ship. The turning point of his life was a thirty-day imprisonment that was so degrading it made him decides to turn to education and pursue a career in writing. His years in the Klondike searching for gold left their mark in his best short stories; among them, The Call of the Wild, and White Fang. His best novel, The Sea-Wolf, was based on his experiences at sea. His work embraced the concepts of unconfined individualism and Darwinism in its exploration of the laws of nature. He retired to his ranch near Sonoma, where he died at age 40 of various diseases and drug treatments.The Martin Jake London 马丁・伊登是个快要满21岁的水手，由于一次偶然的机会，他结识了罗丝一家，对她一见钟情，并对她的家、她的生活都羡慕至极 The Martin Iraq ascends is a soon reach 21 year-old sailor, as a result of an accidental opportunity, he has known Ruth, falls in love to her, and to her family, her life all envies to extremely 马丁住在姐姐家里，从罗丝家回来后，他看什么都不顺眼了，觉得姐姐家里是那么肮脏、庸俗、无聊，而往日的同伴也使他感到不耐烦。他开始觉得自己和罗斯之间存在着巨大的差距，为了使自己能配得上她，他必须努力往上爬。Martin lives in the elder sister family, comes back after Ruth, thought in the elder sister family is that dirty, vulgar, is bored, but the former days companion also made him to feel impatient. He starts to think oneself and between Ross has the huge disparity, in order to enable oneself to match on her, he must upward crawl diligently. 罗丝为马丁的上进愿望所打动，帮助他学习写作，马丁在自学中觉得自己对这个世界的理解和表达水平都在提高。 Ruth, Martin progresses the desire to move, helps him to study writing, Martin in studying independently thought oneself all is enhancing to this world understanding and the expression level. 马丁写的四十篇稿子始终在各家杂志社里不断地兜圈子，他不明白为什么自己的作品不被接受，而那些看上去死气沉沉的东西总是能在报刊上登出来。他去找罗丝，给她念自己的作品，请她评判。罗丝不欣赏他的作品，觉得粗野，可是她被作品体现出来的强大力量打动了。 Martin writes 40 drafts unceasingly circle throughout in various magazine company, he did not understand own work aren't accepted why, but these have a liking for the spiritless thing always to be able to publish in the publication. He looks for the Ruth, reads own work to her, asks her to judge. The Ruth does not appreciate his work, thinks boorishly, but she the formidable strength that is manifested by the work moves. 在屡次失败后马丁仍然坚持写作，他的这种态度和贫困使他和罗斯有了裂痕，罗丝渐渐对他丧失了信心，而马丁对她身边上层人士的攻击也使她反感而忧心忡忡。 After repeatedly was defeated Martin still to persist to write, his this kind of manner and impoverished caused him and Ross has the fissure, the Ruth, silk has lost confidence gradually to him, but Martin also caused her to her side upper society people's attack to dislike but is heavyhearted. 马丁在罗丝家里认识了勃力森登，一位愤世嫉俗的文学天才，社会主义者。一次，他们参加社会党人集会的时候被一个小报记者张冠李戴地写进报道里，成为无政府主义者的魁首，遭到孤立和围攻，罗丝也正式和他分手了。 Martin had known in the Ruth, family the strength woods ascend suddenly resents the world and detests mundane affairs literature talent, socialist. Once, they had participated in the time which the socialist party person assembles by a tabloid reporter confusedly is interpolated in the report, becomes the anarchism leader, encounters the isolation and besieges, Ruth, Side was official and he bids good-bye. 罗丝走了，勃力森登死了，心灰意懒的马丁·伊登却突然时来运转，报刊杂志开始采用他的作品，出版社为了他的声名也接受了他种种苛刻的要求，他成为名作家。他百思不得其解：这些作品都是早就完工的，不知被退过多少次，而他本人也不过是过去的那个马丁·伊登，一点都没有改变，为什么今天大家都来奉承他？最后，连罗丝也主动送上门来，愿意委身于他 Ruth, Si walked, the strength woods ascended suddenly have died, was downhearted the Martin Iraq ascended sudden a change in one's fortune from bad to good, the publication magazine starts to use his work actually, the publishing house in order to his reputation has also accepted he all sorts of harsh requests, he became the famous writer. He can’t understood: These works all are already finish, did not know how many has been drawn back, but he also only was the past that Martin Iraq ascends, has not all changed, why does everybody flatter him today? Finally, Lain Ruth, Siye driving comes, is willing let herself in him. 马丁万念俱灰，感到彻底的幻灭，他把所有的稿件都处理完毕，不再写一个字，把版税所得用来资助他的亲姐妹、洗衣房伙伴乔埃，以及为他守身如玉，一往情深的女工丽茜，然后投身大海，了此一生。 Martin is completely discouraged, felt thorough vanishing, he all processes all manuscripts finished, no longer writes a character, obtained uses for the royalty to subsidize he the blood sisters, laundry room partner tall Egypt, as well as maintains one's moral integrity, the female beautiful and skilled alizarin red for him which is passionately devoted, then joins in the sea, commits suicide. 《马丁·伊登》发表于1909年，前半部带有自传性，取材于杰克·伦敦本人早年的经历和后来的成名过程，主要故事情节则是虚构的。像希腊神话中难以抗拒的命运一样，《马丁·伊登》不仅成为杰克·伦敦对往事的追忆，竟也不幸地成为他未来生活的神秘预言。 "The Martin Iraq Ascended" publishes in 1909, the first half had Discusses himself, selected material myself before the experience and afterwards becomes famous the process in the Jake London, the main plot then was fictionalizes. Looks like the destiny which in the Greek mythology resists with difficulty to be same, "the Martin Iraq Ascends" not only becomes the Jake London to past events recalling, unexpectedly also unfortunately becomes the mystical prediction which he future will live. 在美国文学发展史上，《马丁·伊登》起着先驱作用，后来不少描写“美国梦”破灭的作品都或多或少地受到它的影响。围绕这部书引起的争论首先是在主题上，按照杰克·伦敦的本意，他写这部属的宗旨之一乃是攻击个人主义，但大多数评论家都认为他实在为个人主义辩护，而相当多的读者是把马丁·伊登当作“个人奋斗”的典型来接受的。其次是语言，有人认为“充满元气和力量”，也有人认为“粗糙”、“变化少”。 In the American literature history, "the Martin Iraq Ascends" plays the pioneer role; afterwards many described the work, which "the American dream" was disillusioned all more or less to come under its influence. Revolves the argument which this book causes first is in the subject, according to the Jake London's original intention, he writes one of this subordinate objectives attacks the individualism, but the majority critics all think him really for the individualism defense, but quite many readers are ascends the Martin Iraq treats as "individual struggle" the model accept. Next is the language, some people thought "fills the vitality and the strength", also some people thought "is rough", and “changes few". 杰克・伦敦是以“超人”自居的，他并没有成为超人，但《马丁・伊登》的确是一部超越了时代的作品。 The Jake London is poses as by "the superhuman", he has not become the superhuman, but "the Martin Iraq Ascended" indeed is had surmounted the timework.